1. WHAT IS THERMAL INSULATION?
“Thermal insulation” is the process intended for the restriction of heat losses and gains in buildings and installations. From the technical perspective, thermal insulation is applied in order to reduce heat transfer between to environments with different temperatures.
a. Thermal Conductivity Coefficient (W/mK)
This is the amount of heat permeating through two perpendicular surfaces of the thermal insulation material at 1m distance with 1 m2 surface in the case of a temperature difference of 1°C.
b. Heat Permeability (W/m2 K)
The amount of heat transferred vertically at 1 m surface per 1 hour when the difference between the temperatures of two parallel surfaces of a material of d(m) thickness reaches 1K=1ºC.
c. Thermal Permeability Resistance (m2 K/W)
The arithmetic opposite of thermal permeability. Denoted with the symbol “R” (resistance).
d. Relative Humidity
The ratio of the present amount of water vapor in the air to the highest possible amount of water vapor of that specific temperature.
As a result of temperature decrease, there is a temperature degree where the water vapor in the air becomes liquefied. This value is also known as the condensation temperature and varies depending on each percentage of heat and relative humidity. The difference between the ambient and condensation temperatures will drop as the relative humidity increases. Insulation thickness will increase as the difference is reduced.
Surface temperature must be higher than the condensation point in order to avoid condensation in the interior surface of the external walls. This requires either heating the interior area excessively, or increase the temperature of the interior surface through thermal insulation of the wall.
f. Vapor Diffusion Resistance Coefficient
The partial vapor pressure changed by water vapor, temperature and relative humidity, faces a resistance as the heat moves from warmer to cooler. Depending on its thickness, the 1 m surface of all construction materials is resistant to vapor diffusion. The proportioning of this resistance with the vapor diffusion resistance of the air is called the vapor diffusion resistance coefficient. While it may vary depending on the individual detail, usually, a high vapor diffusion resistance is ideal for thermal insulation materials.
Factors which affect this coefficient;
• Temperature non-dependent to material,
• Material dependent,
• Cell membrane thickness,
• Cell wall cohesion,
• Closed cell,
• Small cell, and
g. Density (kg / m3):
Ideally, densities most appropriate in terms of dimensional stability and mechanical strength should be used. Consequently, specialists should be consulted during material selection.
h. Fire Rating (DIN 4102, BS476, TS EN 13501):
Applicable standards are DIN 4102, BS 476 and TS EN 13501.
i. Temperature Resistance (ºC):
The temperature which the material will be exposed on the application site must be determined in prior and appropriate material should be selected.
j. Mechanical Resistance (kPa):
Mechanical resistance of the thermal insulation materials are usually accepted as the compressive stress value leading to 10% deformation of the material.
k. Water Absorption:
Ideally, the water absorption ratio of the thermal insulation materials should be either zero or close to zero.
l. Dimensional Stability:
Heat or pressure induced material deformations should be at minimum.
Since the newly constructed buildings with complete thermal insulation will require less energy for heating, smaller boilers, lower number of radiators and other heating installation equipment will be required. The reduced number of radiators and panels will also result in more spacious rooms.
The thermal insulation of the installations will also protect the equipment against corrosion thereby ensuring longevity.
1.1. External Thermal Insulation (Cladding)
1.2. Internal Thermal Insulation
2. Thermal Insulation at Thermal Bridges
3. Floor Thermal Insulation
4. Roof Thermal Insulation
I. Wall (curtain wall, columns, beams), floor and roof applications:
- Glass wool [TS 901 / TS 901-1 EN 13162]
- Rockwool, [TS 901/ TS 901-1 EN 13162]
- Expanded polystyrene (EPS) [TS 7316 EN 13163]
- Extruded polystyrene (XPS) [TS 11989 EN 13164]
- Polyurethane (PUR) [TS EN 13165]
- Phenol foam [TS EN 13166]
- Glass foam [TS EN 13167]
- Wood wool panels [TS EN 13168]
- Expanded perlite (EPB) [TS EN 13169]
- Expanded cork (ICB) [TS EN 13170]
- Woodfiber plates [TS EN 13171]
II. Insulating Glass Units:
- Standard insulating glass units [TS 3539; EN 1279]
- Insulating glass units with special thermal control coating [TS 3539; EN 1279; TS EN 1096]
- Insulating glass units with special thermal and sunlight control coating [TS 3539; EN 1279; TS EN 1096]
III. Technical (Industrial) Insulation:
Glass wool, [TS 7232, prEN 14303]
Rockwool, [TS 7232, prEN 14303]
Elastomeric rubber (FEF) [prEN 14304]
Glass foam (CG) [prEN 14305]
Calcium silicate (CS) [prEN 14306]
Extruded polystrene (XPS) [prEN 14307]
Polyurethane (PUR / PIR) [prEN 14308]
Expanded polystyrene (EPS) [prEN 14309]
Polyethylene foam (PEF) [prEN 14313]
Phenolic foam (PF) [prEN 14314]
TS 305 (03.02.1977): Wood Flour Panels
TS 7232 (16.05. 1989): Pipe Shaped Fiber Insulating Material
TS 901 (01.11.1972): Fiber Thermal and Sound Insulating Material
TS 901-1 EN 13162 (29.04.2005): Thermal Insulation Materials – For Buildings – Factory mademineral wool (MW)
Products – Properties – Directive: 89/106/EEC
TS 7316 EN 13163 (17.04.2002): Thermal Insulation Materials – For Buildings – Factory made-Expanded Polystyrene Foam (EPS) – Properties– Directive: 89/106/EEC
TS 11989 EN 13164 (30.04.2003): Thermal Insulation Materials – For Buildings – Factory Made- Extruded Polystyrene Foam (XPS) – Properties – Directive: 89/106/EEC
TS EN 13165 (02.03.2004): Thermal Insulation Materials – For Buildings – Factory Made Hard Polyethylene Foam (PUR) – Properties – Directive: 89/106EEC
TS EN 13166 (02.03.2004): Thermal Insulation Materials – For Buildings – Factory Made Phenolic Foam (PF) – Properties – Directive: 89/106/EEC
TS EN 13167 (11.12.2002): Thermal Insulation Materials – For Buildings – Factory Made Glass foam Products – Properties – Directive: 89/106/EEC
TS EN 13168 (15.04.2003): Thermal Insulation Materials – For Buildings – Factory Made Wood Wool (WW) Products – Properties – Directive: 89/106/EEC
TS EN 13169 (28.01.2004): Thermal Insulation Materials – For Buildings – Factory Made expanded perlite products (EPB) – Properties – Directive: 89/106/EEC
TS 304 EN 13170 (17.04.2003): Thermal Insulation Materials – For Buildings – Factory Made Expanded Oak Cork Panels (ICB) – Properties – Directive: 89/106/EEC
TS EN 13171 (15.04.2003): Thermal Insulation Materials – For Buildings – Factory Made Wood Fiber (WF) Materials – Properties – Directive: 89/106/EEC
TS EN 13494 (14.04.2004): Thermal Insulation Materials Used in Buildings – Adhesion Strength Determination between adhesive and insulating plaster and thermal insulation material
TS EN 13495 (14.04.2004): Thermal Insulation Materials Used in Buildings – Tensile – Breaking Strength Determination for External Composite Thermal Insulation Material (ETICS) (Block Foam Test)
TS EN 13496 (27.09.2005): Thermal Insulation Materials Used in Buildings – Determination of Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Plaster Mesh
TS EN 13497 (27.09.2005): Thermal Insulation Materials Used in Buildings – Impact Resistance Determination for External Composite Thermal Insulation Systems (ETICS)
TS EN 13498 (27.09.2005): Thermal Insulation Materials Used in Buildings – Penetration Resistance Determination for External Composite Thermal Insulation Systems (ETICS)
TS EN 13499 (28.01.2004): Thermal Insulation Materials Used in Buildings – External Composite Thermal Insulation Systems Made with Expanded Polystyrene Foam (ETICS) – Properties
TS EN 13500 (27.09.2005): Thermal Insulation Materials Used in Buildings – External Composite Thermal Insulation Materials Made of Mineral Wool (ETICS) – Properties]
TS 5808 (29.04.1988): Water Based (Emulsion Based) Building Top Coats
TS 7847 (08.02.1990): Ready Made Plaster – Synthetic Emulsion Based for Exterior Façades
TS EN 1279-5 (27.12.2005): Glass – Used in Construction – Glass Based insulation units – Part 5: For compliance assessment
TS EN 1096-1,2,3: Glass – Used in Construction – Coated Glass
TS 825(29.04.1998): Thermal Insulation Rules Standards in Buildings
TS EN ISO 13788 (27.04.2004 ): Thermal Performance of Building Components and Equipment’s in Humid Environment –Internal Surface Temperature to Prevent Critical Surface Moisture and Building Component Condensation – Calculating Methods
TS EN ISO 10211-1 (07.11.2000): Thermal Bridges in Building Construction – Thermal Flow and Surface Temperatures – Part 1: General Calculation Methods
TS EN ISO 10211-2 (29.11.2001): Thermal Bridges in Building Construction – Calculation of Thermal Fluence and Surface Temperatures – Part 2: Linear Thermal Bridges
TS EN ISO 14683 (21.03.2000): Building Construction – Thermal Bridges – Linear Thermal Permeability – Simplified Method and Accurate Values
TS 8441 (14.04.1990): Thermal Insulation Calculating Methods – Rectangular Part Thermal Bridges on Planar Structure Surfaces
“Regulation on Thermal Insulation of Buildings” published in the Official Journal of May 8, 2000 and Nr. 24043
tst EN 13172: Thermal Insulation Products – Compliance Assessment – Directive: 89/106/EEC
tst 825: Thermal Insulation Guidelines for Buildings
“Regulation on the Energy Performance of Buildings” Nr. 2002/91 EC
2. BENEFITS OF THERMAL INSULATION
2.1. Thermal Insulation Reduces Energy Consumption
The need for heating as well as cooling keeps increasing day by day in our country where four seasons are truly experienced. Energy loss/gain in our dwelling areas should be reduced in order to save energy as the amount of energy consumption intended for heating or cooling is defined by the magnitude of the energy lost or gained in the residences. Limiting the amount of thermal energy passing through the construction elements is possible by thermal insulation of the building envelope and the use of insulated joinery and glazing. The calculations reveals that effective thermal insulation can provide energy saving by approx. 50%.
2.2. Thermal Insulation Contributes to Environmental Protection
Fossil fuels meeting more than 60 percent of the worldwide energy requirement are causing global warming. Air pollution keeps increasing due to the growing energy requirement and the lack of efficient consumption. Increased air pollution manifests itself as global warming and climate changes. The threat of global warming and the need for the reduction of air pollution are among the most important subjects of the present day.
Fuel savings to be obtained through the reduction of heat loss during winter and heat gain during summer will also ensure reduction of the greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.
Thermal insulation measures to ensure effective use of energy will reduce fossil fuel consumption and assume an important role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions which cause global warming. In addition, thermal insulation will also cut back on the need for cooling gases used during summer and which cause damage to the ozone layer. The reduced energy requirements will result in reduced power generation along with a smaller amount of fossil fuel used in production, leading to reduction in gas emission.
2.3. Thermal Insulation Provides Thermal Conveniences
Thermal conditions in the indoor environments are a direct concern for the conveniences and health of the inhabitants of such environment. Working efficiency of people largely depends on the temperature of their respective environment. Thermal conditions of the working environment have a direct impact on the people's physical and mental productivity. Too cold or too hot environments have been shown to reduce working efficiency.
In order to avoid this, thermal convenience must be established in the structures. Thermal convenience requires the reduction of the temperature difference between the room temperature and the interior surface temperature of the walls. The higher this difference, the less convenience will be. A comfortable environment requires such difference to be 3°C at maximum. Low interior temperatures lead to the heat’s ambient motion towards the cold surfaces to result in undesirable air flows. Such airflows impair the convenience and cause sickness.
Thermal insulation is required to reduce the difference between the interior surface and ambient temperatures. Thermal insulation provides a homogenous temperature at every point of the area and air flow is blocked. Thus, it allows for a comfortable and healthy environment.
2.4. Thermal Insulation offers a Healthy Living
The relationship between the humidity formed in non-insulated environments and the consequent sicknesses is known. Humid environments create suitable conditions for microorganisms to reproduce. In consequence, the inhalation of the air in such environment becomes harmful for the respiratory track. Humid environments and the mold formations in such areas largely increase the risk of developing asthma particularly for children. Thermal insulation implemented in compliance with applicable standards will prevent all of these problems.2.5. Thermal Insulation Reduces Initial Investment and Operation Costs